Ante la ley : reconfiguraciones de la identidad política de las radios comunitarias, populares y alternativas argentinas, 1983-2015


Loreti, Damián
Petracci, Mónica

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373 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






Since the emergence of community, popular and alternative radios in our country it has been difficult to achieve stable consensus on ways to define conceptually these media, both from the academic field and from the same experiences and their associations. From this problem, this research is guided by the question of the significances linked to these notions. Or, what it is the same from the perspective from which we approach this work, by the question of collective political identity of community, popular and alternative radios in Argentina.

Our research enrols in the academic field of community, popular and alternative communication. However, the incipient development of the investigative work within this field, in addition to other theoretical difficulties which we have faced, led us to focus our question from the political discourse analysis initiated by Laclau and Mouffe. In this sense, we share with other recent research the search for contributing to shaping the field of community, popular and alternative communication from interbreeding with theoretical perspectives that until the moment had been outside.

In the Master's thesis that preceded this work we identify the democratization of communications and the enactment of a new democratic broadcasting law were the main demands shared by community, popular and alternative radios for more than 25 years. The sanction of Law 26,522 of Audiovisual Communication Services (LSCA) in 2009 expresses the institutionalization of these demands in the Argentine state legal framework.

From these considerations, our research started from the following hypothesis: the LSCA not only faced the radios to a new legal situation, but also to the reconfiguration of the significances that endowed their identity. From here it is derived the question that guides our inquiry: What transformations suffered the collective political identity of the community, popular and alternative radios in Argentina from the the LSCA?

The discursive surface to which we approach to answer this question consisted of a corpus of 84 publications about community, popular and alternative radios in Argentina and Latin America. These publications include books, booklets, articles in books and academic journals, and statements produced between 1983 and 2015 by the stations or some of its members; by national and Latin American networks on which they were nucleated; and by communication/education centres, public organisms and intellectuals that promote the strengthening of this type of media. These publications were organized in two periods to approach the analysis in its historical dimension. According with our hypothesis, the decision of the national government to enact a new legislation to democratize communications and guarantee the right to communication in mid-2008, immediate prelude to the sanction of the LSCA, was the turning point that allows us to distinguish the two periods: December 1983 to March 2008 and April 2008 to December 2015.

In addressing this corpus we identified the traces of the constitution of collective political identity of the community, popular and alternative radios, understood as a process of discursive configuration. For that we focus on:
• The production conditions that influenced the emergence and constitution of the political identity of the radios.
• The relationship of antagonism that constitute the political identity of the radio, against which equivalence ratios were configured
• The main signifiers which operated as nodal points, and eventually as empty signifiers, capable to condense the identity of the stations.
• The signifieds and demands articulated in terms of regularities to those signifiers -or, in other words, the traces of the equivalence logic.
• The signifieds and demands that remained as differential moments –or, also, the traces of the differential logic.
• Continuities and displacements in this set of relationships throughout history.

After the analysis presented in the following pages, the initial hypothesis will assume the status of thesis with which we conclude this investigation. What was the reconfiguration of collective political identity of the stations after the LSCA? Synthetically, the institutionalization of demand to democratize communications resulted in the dismantling of antagonism against which the radios had configured equivalences and features of a shared identity for more than 25 years. Between 1983 and 2008, this antagonism had been constituted by the relations of partnership between concentrated media and national governments. The dismantling of this antagonism, from the new rule, had as consequence the differentiation of the political identity of the radios. That is to say, if prior to the enactment of the LSCA the logic of equivalence had prevailed to logic of difference, then this was inverted. Since then, this predominance of the differential logic was expressed in six processes of differentiation: the different valuations of the kirchneristas governments, the different conceptions of the State; the different positions assumed by broadcast networks facing the discussion, approval and implementation of the new law; the differentiation of the signifiers linked to the radios; the emergence of new signifiers capable to structure the radios identity; and the creation of new media networks.

Table Of Contents

Glosario de siglas
I. Introducción
Las radios comunitarias, populares y alternativas como referente empírico
La pregunta por la identidad política de las radios
Los propios recorridos
Objetivos generales y específicos
Estructura de la Tesis

II. Perspectiva teórica
Derivas teóricas
Una apuesta teórica: comprender las radios comunitarias, populares y alternativas desde el análisis político del discurso

III. Reflexiones metodológicas y decisiones analíticas
La conformación del corpus de análisis
La organización del corpus en períodos históricos
Decisiones analíticas
Las publicaciones analizadas

IV. Los años ochenta: democratizar las comunicaciones, democratizar las sociedades
De las escuelas radiofónicas a las radios populares
Nociones equivalentes
El surgimiento de las radios argentinas
La centralidad de la democracia
La demanda por una nueva Ley de Radiodifusión
La participación como idea-fuerza
Democratizar las comunicaciones, transformar la sociedad

V. Los años noventa: resistir e intentar incidir
Después del boom, la búsqueda de identidad
Pinceladas de la época
Resistir al neoliberalismo
De la resistencia a la incidencia
La radio más allá de la radio

VI. 2001-2008: entre la articulación y la dispersión
Los nuevos escenarios nacional y global
La circulación de experiencias, saberes y debates
Continuidades y regularidades
Construir ciudadanía
Entre la articulación y la dispersión

VII. Las posiciones de las redes ante la ley
Hoja de ruta: el proceso de elaboración y los contenidos de la LSCA
FARCO: liderar la conquista de la ley, construir la ley
RNMA: la exigencia, la denuncia y la confrontación públicas
AMARC: la disputa por democratizar las comunicaciones en la escena internacional
Las diferencias entre las posiciones

VIII. Los nuevos acentos
La multiplicación de publicaciones sobre las radios
La emergencia de nuevas emisoras
Entre la aplicación de la ley y la ley del más fuerte
La cuestión de la sostenibilidad
Los nuevos (o no tanto) escenarios tecnológicos

IX. Entre los viejos y los nuevos significantes
Las diferentes lecturas del tiempo histórico abierto por los gobiernos kirchneristas
Las diferentes formas de comprender la relación de las radios con el Estado
La erosión de las equivalencias entre los modos de nombrar

Entre la construcción de ciudadanía y la contrainformación
La emergencia de nuevos significantes I: cooperativas
La emergencia de nuevos significantes II: indígenas
Las articulaciones en red

X. Conclusiones
Antes de la ley
Ante la ley
La pregunta por la incidencia en sociedades massmediatizadas
En busca de definiciones: la contribución al campo de la comunicación comunitaria, popular y alternativa
Serán los días más felices…

XI. Bibliografía

Título obtenido

Doctora de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Ciencias Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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