Construcciones de lo masculino y lo femenino en políticas sociales dirigidas a jóvenes : el caso del programa de prevención del delito "Comunidades Vulnerables" en la localidad de Avellaneda, 2008-2009


Faur, Eleonor

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225 p.



Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)




Avellaneda (inhabited place)


The present thesis analyzes gender dimensions in social policies for young people of impoverish sectors. It interest is to know social relations and interactions between youngsters and social programs, and the consequent identity configurations that take place within these interactions. Thus, in this thesis three main fields of analysis come together: social youths of impoverish sectors, gender and social programs. By virtue of such joint we will put into play social class relations, gender and generation together to analyze its interplay within the interactions between subjects and social programs.

The specific interest that oriented this investigation was to know how a crime prevention program considered and contributed to construct to gender identities of its beneficiaries, especially men. Crime and masculinity are usually associated both on symbolic and statistical structures and could be also expressed in the Program, since
boys constitute most of the clients. This work exposes the process and the results of a case study whose field work took place in an implementation of the program of prevention of the crime “Vulnerable Communities” in a district of Avellaneda (Pcia. Buenos Aires). The data gathering techniques were qualitative: participant observation of the implementation of the program, in-depth interviews to institutional agents and young participants, analysis of institutional documents. Observation of the daily interactions between agents and young people, and institutional and youngsters speeches about relations between masculinity, feminity and crime were analyzed. The work of field was made between November of 2007 and October of 2009.

I present the results of the investigation, focusing on how the service is formed, how it is received by the clients and what effects those interactions have in relation to gender. The thesis analyze the tensions and “dialogues” experienced between the Program and the young people who participate in it around how the proposal of prevention of crime is been concreted within men and woman clients (although in proportion the girls are fewer), what of the current social representations on masculinity and feminity are transformed into normative regulations incarnated by institutions (Scott 2000) and how young men and woman of popular sectors answered them. When initiating the research our point of departure was the assumption that this program, like all, faces actions with ideas and representations of gender (Guzmán 2002) although seems to appear like “neutral”; that it is infused by its own perceptions and representations on desirable models of being boy or girl, and finally, that it makes its proposals towards possible clients taken into account those gender representations. These ideas formed gender models with which the girls and the young men establish relations and although they cannot follow them linearly always filter their experiences (Faur 2003).

The thesis is organized in an introduction, four chapters and a section of conclusions. In the introduction we expose the subject and questions of the investigation, a brief description of the program, the context of implementation and the beneficiaries, and finally we talked about our methodologic strategy.

The first chapter presents the conceptual network with which my research questions were organized. This theoretical frame offers a route that includes questions related to youth, gender and the social policies and presents both conceptual contributions of key authors together with the firsts theoretical joints that worked as bases for the interpretation of field results.

In the second chapter I present the field work putting the center in the Program. First I indicate some characteristics of the present scene of social policies to young people that help me to locate the program I analyze as part of the state intervention towards youths. Secondly, focusing on the Program, I describe it with detail, based on the review and analysis of design documents, interviews with agents and the observation of activities. The objective is to identify what conceptions of youth, gender and model client are present or sublie the program’s design.

Thirdly, I dedicate a chapter to the social relations and interactions between the Program and the young men. Especially I concentrate in the man figure used by the Program as a model the boys must follow when they become clients. By extension, these masculinity models implies the boys to be able to elaborate an alternative life project to the crime - objective of the Program. The chapter presents the reconstruction of the “dialogue” between the institutional device and the young men respect to the remarkable aspects of the youthful masculinity and those that must be avoided to consider themselves dangerous. The institutional glance is exposed but with greater emphasis the voice to the participant men is yielded who adhere, negotiate and reject elements of the proposed model. In that process the men give account of their adhesion to diverse elements of masculinity, although all of them do not represent for the Program a coherent structure.

Finally in the last chapter of the thesis the girls burst in to a Program that was thought for men. It begins with a question on the existence and characterization of the feminine crime, as much from the answers of the Program like of the girls and boys beneficiaries. Soon I review the ways in which girls are admitted in the Program, since noticeable most of them do not maintain direct bonds with the crime. From the profile of the majority of girls beneficiaries tensions with the Program and with the boys emerges, which are solved in different ways. Finally I indicate the adjustments that the state proposal displays before the novel presence of the girls whose main characteristics shared are the maternity.

Constructions of masculinity and feminity in social policies towards young people. The case of the program of crime prevention “Comunidades Vulnerables” in Avellaneda, 2008-2009 try to bring light on the consideration of gender in a social program of a double way. On one hand, to describe the particular way in which a program considers the specificity of gender of their beneficiaries, in order to understand some possible consequences carries out by that set of representations around the specific task of preventing a type of crime that appears like youthful and masculine. On the other hand, when raising the results of this investigation as a “dialogue” between a concrete institution and clients we want to emphasize that the men and the girls questioned by the program respond actively and negotiate the interpretations that circulate in this relation. And they still do it from a position that appears like subordinated in terms of generation and social class respect to the program. Thence they construct, also nourished with the institutional, heterogenous budgets and dynamic configurations of gender that in many cases use strategically. The results of the “dialogue”, strongly crossed by gender representations, brings particular types of entailment between and the young people and the program supposing processes of inclusion in the device or distance and institutional exclusion.

The results of this thesis will be retaken and deepened in one second instance of the investigation since such they are framed in a project ampler than it investigates in the participation of young people in this program of prevention of the youthful crime that includes conditional transference of income. This second instance of analysis anticipates to have like result the elaboration of a doctoral thesis.

Table Of Contents

Resumen en inglés

i. Introducción
ii. El problema y la justificación de la investigación
iii. Metodología
iv. Referente empírico
v. Estructura de la tesis

Aportes conceptuales sobre la juventud, el género y las políticas sociales para jóvenes
1.1 La juventud y los y las jóvenes
1.1.1 La juventud problema: una asociación desde el origen
1.1.2 Atravesar riesgos, arriesgándose
1.2 Juventud y género
1.2.1 Estudios sobre la dimensión de género en las juventudes
1.2.2 Género, masculinidades y tensiones en la configuración del género
1.2.3 Riesgos: los costos del prestigio relativo
1.3 Políticas sociales: construcciones de juventudes y de género
1.3.1 Enfoques de la política social, según consideraciones de las juventudes y el género
1.3.2 Políticas que construyen identidades
1.4 Reflexiones finales del capítulo

La oferta: definiciones sobre la juventud y el género en el Programa
2.1 Contexto del Programa: escenario de políticas sociales para jóvenes
2.2 El programa Comunidades Vulnerables
2.2.1 Entramado institucional
2.2.2 Estructura de funcionamiento del dispositivo
2.3 Caracterización de la población destinataria según documentos y voces institucionales
2.3.1Caracterización del sujeto juvenil destinatario
2.3.2 La dimensión de género
2.3.3 Marcas de género en la implementación
2.4 Reflexiones finales del capítulo
Tensiones en torno a las masculinidades: entre la propuesta de la oferta y la recepción de la demanda
3.1 La masculinidad destacable según el Programa y según los jóvenes
3.1.1 La forma legítima de conseguir recursos y el trabajo legal o ilegal
3.1.2 Distinguirse de los otros
3.1.3 Las grietas del acuerdo
3.2 Los riesgos para los varones según la mirada del Programa y de los jóvenes
3.2.1 Perder la libertad
3.2.2 Carecer de lo que se necesita (material o simbólico)
3.2.3 El grupo de pares
3.3 Luego de tanto desacuerdo... arreglos para intervenir
3.3.1 No poder decidir, ni controlar sus propias acciones
3.3.2 No saber o no entender
3.4 Reflexiones finales del capítulo

La irrupción de chicas "solas" en un Programa pensado para varones
4.1 Delito femenino: la mirada institucional y la de las/os beneficiarias/os
4.2 Admisiones de las chicas: entre el delito y el "estar solas"
4.3 Tensiones surgidas a partir del perfil predominante de las beneficiarias
4.4 Interpretaciones: las legitimadas y las no reconocidas
4.5 Reflexiones finales del capítulo

a) Las subordinaciones
b) Los binarismos
c) Las expectativas
d) Demandas reconocidas y desacreditadas
e) La respuesta sobre el sesgo de género
Repensar la dimensión de género del delito


Título obtenido

Magister de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Políticas Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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