Aproximación al activismo mapuche en torno a la lucha y disputa por una comunicación indígena


Lago Martínez, Silvia

Spatial Coverage

Temporal Coverage





161 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)




Neuquén (province)


The purpose of this work is to make an approach to Mapuche activism, to investigate how they shape their strategies and from them, how they reconstruct links with different sectors of society. In particular, attention is paid to the role that the Audiovisual Communication Services Law (LSCA) had on the processes of political participation promoted by these young indigenous people, especially during the government of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.

That is why in this work is cut, in time and space, indigenous organizations belonging to the Mapuche people of the province of Neuquén who intervene in the public arena between 2009 and 2015. From that cut you can analyze the perspectives that indigenous activists put into play during those debates.

A discursive corpus is collected and analyzed - images (graphics, photographs) and texts (stories, statements, speeches) - in coordination with the actions of protest and mobilization carried out by the Mapuche organizations.

To carry out this task, interviews were held with the main indigenous references and key informants and participant observation at meetings, congresses, workplaces, festivities, fairs, exhibitions, space of community radios, both in the territory of the Mapuche communities of Neuquén as in Buenos Aires, where these groups extend the circuit of activities.

By recognizing the importance they give to information and communication technologies (ICT) in this process, it shows that communication has become one of the possible ways of exploring innovative forms of political militancy in Mapuche indigenous organizations.

In this process of increasing social appropriation of digital technologies activists renew their own discourses that are reinforced by the effective use they make of them. In this sense, the main indigenous referents recognize that if they fail to establish new ways and strategies to convey their own meanings, they will be represented by the "other society" means, with the risk that through this apparent recognition of the diversity, where the particularity and complexity of these sectors are often ignored, are located in any of the stereotypes in circulation.

Following the same line of analysis can be traced how the activists were setting up a profile of the activist / communicator prior to the enactment of the LSCA, but also the strategies and discussions that updated to give continuity to that process of struggle and recognition that until today is in full development.

It is interesting to highlight the importance of indigenous identity, because through it they are configuring innovative forms of action and organization charged with positive values, as opposed to the traditional negative charge that has been made throughout the history of the term. This gives rise to the constitution of the social and political subject and the becoming in social movement.

By giving an account of the relevance that identity has for these social actors, the importance of the territory to promote these initiatives makes sense. There they make visible the disputes they have with different social actors with different interests who hold those territories. In the framework of this struggle, communication projects become fields for social and political experimentation, from where activists rehearse and practice new social, political or communication identities, to confront those models that stereotype and standardize complex processes of participation, for deprive them of their territories but also of the symbols and cultures that sustain that people.

Hence, this process is considered by indigenous activists as a conquest of militancy placing communication with identity as one of the possible ways of struggle at the center of that scene.

While it is emphasized that the LSCA was the moment where many of these experiences came together in an unprecedented way in Argentina, it is necessary to understand this process as a continuity of those struggles and not as a starting point, much less an arrival. For this reason, paying attention to the ways in which activists give continuity to these processes of struggle and vindication become essential to analyze these processes.

For all, the activists recognize that they will be able to give power to their initiatives in the measure that their proposals contain the link with the territory and the anchoring in their culture, but always from an integral perspective that allows to disarm that specialized idea that is usually had within The indigenous organizations themselves, as well as outside them, will be able to promote and consolidate, as they themselves defined, a Communication with Identity.

Table Of Contents


I. Presentación de la Investigación

1.Delimitación del objeto de estudio y opción metodológica

III. Perspectivas teóricas: Antecedentes y encuadre analítico
1.La agenda clásica de los movimientos sociales y los aportes de la corriente europea a la acción colectiva
1.1 La acción colectiva en la conceptualización de la “Escuela de los nuevos movimientos sociales”
2. Entorno a la identidad colectiva: la etnicidad
3. Territorios practicados
4. La comunicación y las tecnologías digitales en el contexto de los movimientos sociales
4.1. Las tecnologías digitales y nuevas formas de militancia
4.2. Crear una propuesta comunicacional propia

IV. Alcances en la política indígena Argentina y procesos de re-organización mapuche
1. Década del ochenta: los primeros reconocimientos legislativos a nivel nacional
2. Década del noventa
2.1 Los contrafestejos al V Centenario del “Descubrimiento de América”: nuevas propuestas organizativas
2.2 Los principales cuestionamientos de las organizaciones a los alcances legislativos
2.3 El Estado reconoce la pre-existencia indígena en Argentina

V. Innovadoras formas de militancia del activismo indígena mapuche en torno a una nueva generación de medios de comunicación indígenas
1. Contexto de crisis y nuevas articulaciones
1.1. Los primeros pasos de los jóvenes activistas/ comunicadores indígenas
1.2. El trabajo de articulación con los comunitarios y alternativos
2. Dar forma a los proyectos propios
2.1. El “compromiso” que se necesita para ser comunicador indígena
3. Definir la comunicación

VI. Cambios en el escenario político y una nueva oportunidad para avanzar en la demanda comunicacional
1. ¿Continuidades o cambios en la política institucional para la reorganización del activismo indígena?
1.2 A instancia del Estado el CPI y el ENOTPO
2. El ENOTPO el lugar de fragua de las iniciativas comunicacionales de los jóvenes indígenas

VII. Disputa por la formulación de la Ley de Servicios de Comunicación Social
1. Escenario político comunicacional: Actores sociales y factores que trazan la contienda
2. La construcción discursiva y normativa de la Ley de Servicios de comunicación Audiovisual
2.1 Nuevos conflictos redefinen el escenario político comunicaciona
2.2 Desarmar la idea de prensa independiente
2.3 Construir la imagen de colectivo diferenciado
2.4 La propuesta de comunicación con Identidad se consolida

VIII. De los alcances de la propuesta de Comunicación con Identidad a las limitaciones del reconocimiento por parte del Estado
1. El anteproyecto de Ley
1.2. El derecho a la información: nuevos y viejos planteos comunicacionales
2. Los puntos más importantes que se tuvieron en cuenta en la Ley y los desafíos futuros para el activismo indígena

IX. Expresiones políticas y culturales de los jóvenes activistas mapuche
1. redefiniciones políticas y organizativas
2. En torno a un congreso de comunicación indígena
2.1 La puesta en escena de la CCAIA: discurso y acción
2.2 Movilizaciones en defensa de la comunicación: repertorios de acción
2.2.1 El lanzamiento del primer canal indígena Wall kintun tv

X. Una aproximación a los proyectos que los jóvenes activistas impulsan en los territorios
1. La “mística neuquina” y la identidad mapuche
1.1 Se constituye la provincia de Neuquén
1.2. Las primeras organizaciones indígenas en Neuquén
1.3. El indio permitido vs el indio conflictivo
2. El viaje y los proyectos en los territorios
2.1. La tarea de los activistas en los territorios
2.2. Multiplicidad de actores
2.3. El encuentro de comunicadores para afianzar el trabajo colectivo
2.4. En el territorio, el proyecto político y comunicacional
2.5. El desafío de transmitir la lucha

XI. Conclusiones

Título obtenido

Magister de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Investigación en Ciencias Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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