Elecciones presidenciales 1999 : la construcción de los candidatos en televisión


Martini, Stella Maris

Spatial Coverage

Temporal Coverage





251 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






This thesis takes as title “Presidential Elections 1999: the construction of the candidates in television”. The topic of this work is the television forms of the political communication, especially in the moments of the construction of the presidential campaigns.

The relevance of the topic is supported by the event that the media have in the public space, such as the mediators of the reality and the creators of the opinions have, acting like transmitters and purifiers of the social representations. Their importance also remits to a scarce bibliography on the topic from the political communication and to the necessity of adding explanations and casuistry to the bibliography of the field.

The object approached by this investigation is the presidential campaign in 1999 shown on the television, when the “Partido Justicialista” (PJ) with Eduardo Duhalde and the “La Alianza” with Fernando De la Rúa competed to reach the maximum position. First is studied the way in which the television makes the presidential candidates of the majority parties during the campaign in 1999, secondly the meanings of the resulting speeches and diffused and consolidated social representations, then the image of the citizen proposed in such speeches, and finally the representations on the daily life and the politics.

It is a proposal to investigate, with technical qualitative, according to this, the idea is to study the television speeches exposed in the news programs, the politics interviews, interviews and opinion, interviews and general interest during June, September and October of 1999 respectively, and the news reports during September and October of the same year.

The justification of this investigation is in the effects of the transformations of the public space and the crisis of the political representation that are manifested worldwide and in our country they acquired, in 1999, dimensions of strong impact on the society. The changes mostly took place in the political communication and the rhetoric of the spectacle.

Thinking about the campaign in 1999 in terms of rhetorical deviation used to appeal to the citizens, the hypothesis being exposed is the following: the construction of the candidates on the television during the electoral campaign in 1999 is made in terms of attributive agenda or discursive stylistic agenda, which implies a special spectacle of the political scene and a change in the appealing forms to the citizenship.

The state of the question through which the work is analyzed is approached from the following sectors: the theory of the communication and especially the theory on the news media, the political communication and the construction of the image of the candidates through the political marketing, the theories on the Agenda Media and the theory of the analysis of the speech of the media.

Because of the temporary period in which the theme was approached, there won't be kept in mind the political, social and cultural transformations, which resulted from the events that terminated with the government of De la Rúa, neither the later effects in the constitution of the opinion, the action of the civil society, and the work of the media from December of 2001 to the present moments. The time calendar, approached historical time is 1999.

In the course of the investigation, you verifies that the images and resulting speeches give that the electoral fight was given in terms of agenda of attributes, in which the television showed the qualities better prepared by the candidates, likewise from a stylistic agenda - discursive. From the television the characteristic political speech of the campaign communication (interest of the citizenship) and the in favor speech follower present with the image conforming an everything, that escapes to the spectacular forms in none of the cases that up to now the media builds, in its role like the best tool of publicity and marketing during the political campaign.

It is assumed that this work would give some explanations and it would be productive in the study of the presidential campaigns of 2003 and the recent legislative (2005)

Table Of Contents

Propuesta de Investigación
Planteo de la Hipótesis

Estado del Arte
Las Teorías de la Comunicación y los medios informativos
La Comunicación Política y la Construcción de Imagen de un Candidato
La Teoría de la Agenda Mediática
La Teoría Crítica del Análisis del Discurso

Capítulo I Marco Teórico y Metodología
El Marco Teórico
Las Fuentes de Información
El Contrato de Lectura y las Modalidades del Discurso
La Comunicación Política
La Agenda en el Discurso Político
Marketing Político y su alcance en las campañas políticas
Diseño de la Investigación
Los Programas
Los Noticieros

Capítulo II Marketing Político y Contexto Televisivo
La entrevista en televisión como arena política en la campaña 1999: imágenes, marketing y consideraciones generales
El contexto de la televisión durante el período electoral 1999
Televisión y Expertos Internaciones en Campañas Políticas

Capítulo III El Verosímil de la Relación Directa con el Ciudadano: la Entrevista en programas periodísticos y en el programa de interés general
La Tribuna de la Ciudadanía: “Hora Clave”
“Hora Clave” en campaña
La organización y el sentido de las entrevistas
Un espacio que se propone trasgresor: “Día D”
Los Temas de campaña
Los Programas de Interés General – Mirtha Legrand un actor por fuera del periodismo
La “gente” como interlocutora

Capítulo IV Los Noticieros
La Noticia Televisiva
Las entrevistas en los noticieros
Actos de campaña en los noticieros
Exposiciones políticas en los noticieros
La Conferencias de prensa en los noticieros


Anexo 1: Agenda Mediática de acontecimientos políticos en televisión durante el período marzo / octubre de 1999
Anexo 2: Encuesta presentada por Mora y Araujo Asociados el 15 de septiembre de 1999: Hechos de la Agenda Mediática de las Noticiero Televisivos entre mayo y octubre de 1999
Anexo 4: XI Seminario de Marketing Político. “La Campaña Permanente”
Anexo 5: El Perfil Televisivo. En La Nación, Tevé, 11/04/99
Anexo 6: “La TV en el Banquillo”, En Buenos Aires casi la mitad de la población ve televisión a solas. En Clarín, Información General, 21/10/99
Anexo 7: “La TV en el Banquillo”, ¿Qué programas cree que le faltan a la Televisión? En Clarín, Información General, 21/10/99
Anexo 8: “Rating en baja”, Tabla de rating de Noticieros entre febrero de 1998 y febrero de 1999. En La Nación, Espectáculos 07/03/99

Bibliografía Básica
Artículos Periodísticos
Artículos Varios
Sitios de Internet
Bibliografía General de la Maestría

Título obtenido

Magister de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Investigación Social

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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