Asimetrías entre Brasil y Argentina en el Mercosur : los ejemplos en las industrias del calzado, automotriz, azúcar y farmacéutica


Frenkel, Alejandro

Spatial Coverage




35 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






The asymmetries in the integration processes prevent the signatory countries of the trade agreements from appropriating the benefits of the same. The asymmetries are structural, characteristic of size, population, or natural or regulatory conditions, which are implemented through state policies in the form of incentives to favor exports or facilitate the establishment of investments.

In the region Argentina and Brazil begin a process of integration in 1985 after the democratic recovery and trying to overcome the isolation to which they were subjected. The objectives were aimed at promoting a common front to negotiate in better conditions and strengthen the capacities of each country.

The existing asymmetries were taken into account before the creation of the PICE (Integration and Cooperation Program). This program fostered gradual and intra-sectoral integration, avoiding the inclusion of all products and not harming the industries of the signatory states.

In 1988 the Integration, Cooperation and Development Treaty was signed trying to overcome the limitations of the PICE.

In 1991, the Ouro Preto Treaty laid the foundations for the creation of MERCOSUR between Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay.

The creation of the FOCEM (Structural Convergence Fund) in 2004 is proposed as a mechanism to finance "programs of structural convergence, development of competitiveness, social cohesion, and strengthening of the institutional structure and the integration process."

The differences between Brazil and Argentina persisted, and in the footwear, automotive, sugar and pharmaceutical industries, integration was uneven, achieving progress only when the interests of the transnational companies involved prevailed.

Título obtenido

Especialista en Estudios Contemporáneos de América y Europa

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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