Las prácticas sociales de las empresas recuperadas en la Argentina post-crisis financiera de 2001


Vuotto, Mirta

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198 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






The thesis intends to study the social practices of the argentine recovered companies (RC), a phenomenon that is affirmed in the terms that we know today, between the years 1990 and 2000 due to the causes that lead to the 2001 financial crisis. This study starts from a historical and theoretical analysis, considering the causes of financial crises in general and those of the country in particular, focusing on theoretical assumptions such as economic positivism, considered responsible for the logic behind the crisis (financial capitalism). It considers the impact that the 2001 crisis produced in the country, and on this base it proposes the answers to economic positivism such as the so-called socially oriented economies. The social and economic phenomena that arose in response to the crisis, such as the piqueteros movements, the assemblies and barter, are then analyzed to reconstruct the theoretical and historical context in which a group of nineteen recovered companies has been studied, in a period that goes from 2008 to 2012, updating in some cases in 2019.

The study methodology has been based on primary and secondary data sources. The data from the different sources were used in a complementary way. The primary data sources translate the issues related to the context and the evolution of the relationships that gave life to the resulting processes. Secondary data refer to documentary sources on RC and the initiatives developed in order to have an overview of their performance and know their evolution. The data collection instrument was adjusted to the specific objectives of the study to consider the themes related to the functions and activities of the interlocutors. Information was collected using a questionnaire and an in-depth standardized interview guide with open-ended questions. The questionnaire applied to representatives of the selected RC includes, among the main axes: the causes of the recovery process; the socioeconomic dimension of RE; the financial dimension; internal organization and the production cycle. Particular attention is given to the territorial dimension and the evolution of the relationships that were established from the organization to the territory. Interviews were also conducted to understand the point of view of some specialists who have dealt with the subject of RC, either academically or operationally. The interviews inquired about the originality and novelty that the recovered companies could contribute in the scenario of the argentine economy, in terms of new theoretical models.

Through the information collected, they have been reconstructed the relational evolutionary stages of the recovery process; and in this context the social practices used Pierre Bourdieu's concept of practice; it always yearns to build new social capital, cultural and economic one among the actors of a territory. Using the author's categories of “habitus” and “field”, related to the general field of economics and the subfield of the capitalist model, it was observed how some RCs develop territorial relations not only economic, but loaded with cultural meanings. These relationships allowed structuring an enterprise ideal-type, which in this thesis is defined of community or socialized with the territory. In the context, it observes the evolutionary process that leads to define this model and how RCs try to constitute a new social capital defined ethical, which aims to respond to the general interests of the community in terms of rights and not only in terms of maximization of individual interests. In this scenario, it defines the concepts of ontological reason of the economy and demand for peoples' rights that give life to the general process called “economic socialization”, and characteristic of some companies. In other words, these are processes that socialize economic actions through goods and services that contain a cultural meaning that unites citizens (they build community) and again give the economy intelligibility in terms of values or visions of life.

In this context, it was observed that social practices develop from the change in relationships that go from the particular (the ER organization) to the territory to give rise to links that weave a new sense of the local economy. Among them, a new role of the assembly stands out, which becomes an associatively defined assembly, that is, a place that debates visions of local life and not only issues related to the management of the company; the constitution of local boards where discussing the priorities of the company that change its economic mission; deals defined together with the citizens; agreements with social and political institutions to jointly define local development plans that include social and political visions that must be incorporated into the economy and are not only agreements to build new economic opportunities or new markets; the incorporation of new social services conceived as a necessity to build an ontological reason neglected by the dominant situation, etc.

From this perspective, the analysis allows us to conclude that RE social practices can fill the gap between economy and society, in a context in which the financial plays a fundamental role in promoting a process that moves the economy away from a vision of life. So, the economy again incorporates in its purposes what society considers important as such because it is an essential part of its being, that is, part of its ontological reason that is constructed from essential questions about the type of society we aspire to.

Table Of Contents

Planteamiento del problema
Metodología de abordaje

Capítulo I
Las crisis financieras. Antecedentes teóricos e históricos
1.1 El capitalismo y el quiebre entre economía y sociedad
1.2 La era del capitalismo financiero a partir de los años setenta
1.3 La financiarización de la economía mundial
1.4 Las crisis financieras actuales como crisis de orden social
1.5 La crisis financiera argentina del 2001 y sus raíces en las reformas neoliberales de los años setenta y noventa del siglo pasado
1.6 La desindustrialización argentina a partir de la década de 1970
1.7 Las transformaciones durante los años 1990
1.8 El proceso de financiarización
1.9 La crisis de 2001 y sus implicancias de orden social

Capítulo II
Las economías socialmente orientadas como respuesta a las crisis financieras en el mundo y en la Argentina 2001
2.1 El positivismo económico como humus de la pérdida de la función social de la economía
2.2 La economía social y solidaria como recuperación de la función social de la economía
2.3 La finanza ética
2.4 El comercio justo
2.5 Del desarrollo económico al desarrollo autosostenible
2.6 Fenómenos en respuesta a la crisis de 2001: piqueteros, asambleas barriales y trueque
2.7 Los estudios sobre las empresas recuperadas

Capítulo III
Las prácticas sociales de las empresas recuperadas argentinas
3.1 Conceptualización de las empresas recuperadas y el enfoque de análisis
3.2 Breve referencia al contexto político-económico nacional
3.3 El caso de estudio
3.3 Las etapas evolutivas del proceso y las prácticas sociales: entre 2001 y 2012
3.4 Análisis comparado de empresas recuperadas

Capítulo IV
Un modelo de economía de comunidad a través de las prácticas sociales
4.1 El modelo de empresa de comunidad como tipo ideal
4.2 El caso de la UST como empresa de comunidad
4.3 La organización interna de una empresa de comunidad
4.4 El proceso de socialización económica como posible respuesta a la financiarización de la economía
4.5 La demanda relacional de derechos como construcción de una razón ontológica en respuesta a la razón utilitaria


Título obtenido

Doctor de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Ciencias Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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