Estrategias de formación y disputa política en movimientos sociales : el caso de la Universidad de los Trabajadores de la Empresa Recuperada IMPA (2011-13)


Figari, Claudia

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304 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






The present Thesis aim to produce knowledge about the articulation between the pedagogical proposals developed by the social movements and their political strategy.

Focusing on the Argentine context of the Companies Recovered by their Workers (ERT's, in Spanish), the study analyzes the relationship between the political strategy of the metallurgical company "IMPA" and the educational program involved in the creation of the so-called "University of the Workers" (UT-IMPA).

To answer the questions that guide this research, we base ourselves on ethnographic fieldwork, carried out through participatory observations in the "foundational nucleus" of the UT-IMPA, between 2011 and 2013. However, in order to properly situate our case of study, we must first consider the context that surround it, in which bankrupt companies can be “reconverted" in a self-managed one by their workers. Then, we will tackle on the trajectory of IMPA, in the development of its peculiar proposal regarding the workers self-management.

The research begins by examine of those learning processes involved in this conflict between employers and workers. The dispute between formation strategies deployed by the capital's and labor's sides, is played between the individual resignation and the collective organization aimed at appropriating the productive process.

The pedagogical mediations involved in the different stages of this conflict, establishes a "circuit" that enables us to visualize how an unthinkable solution at the beginning becomes credible in the end. However, the different meanings erected among workers about the purpose of their actions, indicate limits in their identity changes, such as the persistence of a "salaried subjectivity".

From a position situated in IMPA, we can realize that not all ERTs adopt the "open factory" as its principle. This allows us to see that there are different purposes assigned to the recovery of companies. ERTs of a strictly "Productivist" nature contrast with "Social Enterprises", which go beyond their economic aspect.

IMPA promotes the recovery of many other companies and disseminates its political proposal with the name of "IMPA Method". This strategy incorporates the notion of "open factory", promoting projects of mutual support with the neighborhood and by enable the spaces of its plant other social organizations, dedicated to culture, education, communication and health.

Within this framework, rises up the idea to create an "Educational Pole" in IMPA, with the aim of generating an educational offer that goes from the primary level till the universitarian one, also including artistic training, access to cultural devices and its own production of audiovisual media.

The creation of the UT-IMPA is the first step on that path. To mobilize the initial resources of this socioeducational project, it is deployed a series of repertoires of action, in order to articulate broad networks of alliances aiming to make converge the volume of the social and symbolic capital available in them.

We use the biographical method to examine the life trajectories of some members of the UT’s "foundational nucleus", highlighting their perceptions and privileged strategies in this process. They possess a certain "expertise" regarding the militant habitus of the "popular field" in which they move, that allows them to combine a series of repertoires of action to form a substratum on which this particular socio-educational experience is built.

From a quotidian accompaniment of the implementation of the UT's educational program, we examine its most peculiar characteristics, such as the forms of (self) financing; the teaching methodology based on the "group device"; and the production of knowledge proposed from a "workers perspective". Likewise, to describe the thematic contents of the courses carried out, we examine their programs, public dissemination documents, the composition of the teaching staff and the way in which the presentation of the topics takes place.

Our contribution consists of demonstrating that those formative processes occupy a central place to recover bankrupt companies and consolidate the worker’s self-management. The incidence of formative strategies by the capital’s side persists even after the self-management stage has begun. As the appropriation of the means of production does not necessarily mean
the buildup of a group fully aware of its attributions in the administration of the company, self-management is in a constant tension between consolidation and reversibility.

In this sense, the implementation of the UT’s educational program founds to be conditioned by the urgent political-productive problems of IMPA, overlapping the development previously planned by its leaders. Likewise, the different meanings attributed about the creation of an "Educational Pole" generate tensions within the IMPA’s factory, once that project presupposes a change in the pre-existing relationships structure.

As a way of conclusion, we can point out that, although the implemented educational program achieves some short-term political objectives, such as promotion the public utilization of the factory, it is insufficient to articulate itself in a perennial manner, either with the productive unit that hostels it, or with the other popular organizations present in the plant. The UT’s educational program demonstrates an intention to construct different social representations, based on the ppreciation of the communitarian aspect of everyday life, in the exchange of experiences and in the local cooperative labor to overcome some urgent social needs of the population, by creating pedagogical spaces and caring activities. It also wants to inform that the articulation between science and popular lore demands collective methods of knowledge production, appropriate to the associative character of social movements.

Table Of Contents

Resumen (Abstract)
Introducción. Contextualización y Metodología de la Tesis

Disputas entre Estrategias Formativas en la Recuperación de Empresas

Capítulo 1. Procesos Formativos en la Recuperación de Empresas
Introducción: el fenómeno de la “recuperación” de empresas. Estado de la Cuestión
1.1. Mediaciones entre la Resignación y la Apropiación del Proceso Productivo
1.2. Alcances de la Autogestión para la clase trabajadora
1.3. Tensiones sobre las ERTs. Reversibilidad Vs. Consolidación de la autogestión

Capítulo 2. Estrategias Formativas en la Recuperación de Empresa
2.1. Las organizaciones previas a la quiebra de la empresa: el “núcleo reivindicativo” mediador de las estrategias de formación del trabajo
2.2. Las Estrategias de Formación del Trabajo: articulación entre repertorios de acción
2.3. Las Estrategias de Formación del Capital
2.4. Modelo Analítico sobre la recuperación desde las Pedagogías Críticas

Capítulo 3. Las Dos Concepciones de la Recuperación: disputas en la organización política de las ERTs
Introducción. Diferencia conceptual y fracturas políticas
3.1. Estrategias de Recuperación Contrapuestas en el “Movimiento” de ERTs (Contraste entre el MNER y el MNFRT)
3.2. Reivindicaciones frente al Estado. Diferenciación Programática
3.3. La noción de “fábrica abierta” en disputa
3.4. La Propuesta de Empresa Social enunciada desde IMPA (El “Método IMPA”)

Capítulo 4. La Trayectoria de La Fábrica IMPA. Disputas políticas en el desarrollo de su concepción de Empresa Social
4.1. Las Etapas de Desarrollo de IMPA: memoria histórica en su identidad actual
4.2. Ascensión de la Concepción de la Empresa Social (1999-2005)
4.3. Crisis de la Concepción de Empresa Social (2005-2008)
4.4. Regreso a la Empresa Social: La “Fábrica Ciudad Cultural” (2008 hasta hoy)

La Universidad de los Trabajadores IMPA (UT-IMPA).

Capítulo 1. La estrategia política de IMPA y el Programa Educativo de la UT
1.1. Los Objetivos Estratégicos de IMPA (corto, medio y largo plazo)
1.2. La Intencionalidad de la Enseñanza: aproximación a la Propuesta Pedagógica
[A] Enunciados sobre la Educación como Estrategia de Formación del Capital
[B] Enunciados sobre la Educación como Estrategia de Formación del Trabajo

Capítulo 2. Los Repertorios Previos que conforman el Programa Educativo
Introducción. Miembros del “Núcleo Fundacional” de la UT-IMPA
2.1. El núcleo Fundacional de la UT: sus trayectorias de vida
2.2. La elaboración de una Perspectiva del Trabajo sobre la producción del conocimiento
2.3 La Constitución Física de la UT y su relación con el Programa Educativo
2.4. El Habitus Grupal y la Instrumentalización del Debate Público

Capítulo 3. Los Contenidos Temáticos del Programa Educativo
3.1. El Seminario de Teoría Grupal: “Los grupos y equipos en el mundo del trabajo”
3.2. El Seminario de Historia del Movimiento Obrero
3.3. El Seminario de Derechos Humanos (DD.HH.)
3.4. El Seminario de Economía Humana (SEH)
3.5. Los Profesorados
3.6. Otros Talleres, Seminarios y Cátedras
3.7. Propuestas inconclusas
3.8. Dificultades en el desarrollo del programa educativo y las tensiones en las ERTs

Capítulo 4. Estructuras vinculares en IMPA y el Programa Educativo de la UT
4.1. Estructura vincular interna al núcleo fundacional de la UT
4.2. Estructura vincular preexistente entre las organizaciones sociales de IMPA
4.3. Estructuras vinculares en la conformación de los Profesorados
4.4. Estructuras vinculares en la articulación de una estrategia común

Referencias Bibliográficas

Título obtenido

Doctor de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Ciencias Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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