La información política en los noticieros de televisión : el uso de fuentes periodísticas en los noticieros de Canal 7, Canal 11 y Canal 13


Becerra, Martín

Spatial Coverage

Temporal Coverage

2 al 6 de junio del 2008
12 al 16 de diciembre de 2011




137 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






The main purpose of this study is the degree of diversity of political information with respect to the study of the sources consulted by TV news, channels 7, 11 and 13 of Buenos Aires city. To measure and compare the variety of news, the time dedicated to political information and how the mentioned sources are used.

The sample consists of a total of 30 broadcasts of three issues in a week , just including political news in prime time.

Field study consists in a content analysis of political news corresponding to TV news recorded from 2 to 6 June 2008 in the middle of a conflict between the Argentine government and farmers' associations, and from december 12 to 16 2011, some days after Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner second election as president. Both periods show notorious differences regarding covering information as during 2008 the most formidable political controversy took place meanwhile the 2011 analysis corresponds to a preelectoral period with no significant degree of conflictivity. However, it is clear that between both periods of analysis several similarities in which high or low semblances of info sources can be found.

It is worth recalling that on March 10 2008, just three months after president Cristina Fernandez Kirchner assumed, she signed resolution number 125/08 prescribing the rate of grain exports taxes, particularly soy.

The agro conflict was relevant in the news in the weekly analysis being concentrated in the conflict. During 2011 CFK won with the 54%, the highest percentage since 1983, taking long distance from opposition candidates Hermes Binner (FAP)17%, Ricardo Alfonsin UDESO 11,8%, Alberto Rodriguez Saá (Compromiso Federal 8%, Eduardo Duhalde Unión Popular 6%, Jorge Altamira Partido Obrero, a little higher than 2% and Elisa Carrió a little less than 2%. This fact would explain such a victory in the notorious exit from the economical crisis of 2008/2009 sustaining employment, return to high levels of economy, consuming, expansion of social plans for the most vulnerable classes and in particular the implementation by a decree of the AUH Asignacion Universal por Hijo). In view of the economic bonanza, opposition parties were unable to
convince society of the risk of living in high level of inflation and the growing wave of insecurity that the government seemed to control.

Data show that TV news show a rate a little superior to a source each news, that would avoid “reflecting the largest number of point of views possible” as style manuals demand, and as some authors point out, affecting essential aspects in the mediating task of journalism. (Martini, 2000; Luchessi y Martini, 2004: McQuail, 1988, and others).

Facing the purpose of the present theses, source is defined as any person whose image and/or sound appears live while it is relatied direct or indirectly with the fact and be verified by the receptor. Mentions made by speakers or conductors are excluded.

The analysis unit was the political news with image and audio (texts and briefs were excluded as well as columnists comments) followed by the presentation of the conductor and with its corresponding graphic title.

With such results an individual analysis was carried on with each TV news plus a comparative study of those where an analysis of other categories of informative diversity in relation to the use of sources, differences and semblances between official TV and private, largest time news, TV news with more or less political info, themes and predominant candidates.

The degrees of pluralism and diversity are strongly affected by the deficit of sources of news in question. In all three cases it hardly exceeds the average of one source/news with the deteriorating of an absolute absence of sources in a high percentage of the totality of news.

Within the present thesis different authors were chosen based on their research studies in the field of communication, above all those relative to the impact of TV such as in political activity as well as in the citizens´ opinion. The election also reached authors who dedicated part of their research to the use of journalist sources of the TV news and to the tension between the media and politics and in which way it may affect this circumstance to the final issue.

Denis McQuail (1988), in La acción de los medios appears in the list of authors selected for the significance he confers to the media as entitled agents in society and the description of the media surrounding, detailing the relation affected by tensions and controversies where journalistic sources and the pressure of the political and economic environment play a determining rol .

Maxwelll McCombs (1997), under the agenda setting, Building Consensus: The News Media’ s Agenda-Setting Roles, in his studies of impact of political info has on public opinion and authors such as Scheufele and Tewksbury (2007), Framing, Agenda Setting and Priming: The evolution fo three media effect models, who studied the way in which media select and present the info and stress certain attributes of political leaders.

Stella Martini (2009), in Periodismo, noticia y noticiabilidad places journalistic sources in the centre of the news activity. She finds the basis of message construction news the relation between info sources, public and newsmen, suggesting that media build the agenda according to access to sources.

Carlos Llorens contribution (2001), Concentración de empresas de comunicación y el pluralismo, is important because of the clear distinction he points between pluralism and diversity. Plurality would be the necessary condition meanwhile diversity the sufficient condition for the presence of pluralism in media. Llorens agrees with other authors that political pluralism is a media space in which all political arguments converge, not only opinions supported by highly electoral sectors.

Moreover, Dominique Wolton (1992), Elogio del gran público, gives her particular view about TV in which democratizing values are concerned, considering that it reaches all social sectors. Another author included in this thesis for his analysis of TV is Jean Mouchon (1999), Política y Medios.

According to Mouchon the tyranny of the event leads to a constant contradiction in TV news which face the dilema of a quick answer or the attention of the complexitiy of the facts. Thus messages stressing the emotional factor are numerous, the kingdom of the fact without projections or context and the preference for its dramatization.

It is included as well, among other documents, the audiovisual system of BBC of London and the style manuals of the US CNN, the CBS, the Radio y TV Española, CBC Radio Canada and the BBC ogf London. No other manuals are used because there are no explicit references although they do include references to the question in operative or ethic chapters, reflecting the variety of differences throughout the different voices regarding political activity.

The English model is worth mentioning because it could start from a strong state control up to the performance that by these days it is noticed between the public activity and private, always reserving the state a privilege place as regulator of contents and the mediator of the media market. A system is not free of necessary high standards requirements of journalistic quality within the notion of public service interest where business cannot prevent the proliferation of cultural, education programs, of a necessary interest to small communities, minor groups, regions and of course the wide variety of points of view of all political actors.

The present study is completed with interviews to TV news producers, editors and ex editors –not all belong to analyzed TV channels – and an interview to a TV specialist.

Título obtenido

Magister de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Periodismo

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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