Itinerarios intelectuales en las tramas de la nueva izquierda colombiana (1957-1978) : Mario Arrubla Yepes y Estanislao Zuleta Velásquez, dos marxistas heterodoxos


Tarcus, Horacio
Núñez Espinel, Luz Ángela

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355 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






This research deals with two Colombian intellectuals: Mario Arrubla Yepes (1936) and Estanislao Zuleta Velásquez (1935-1990). They created a common intellectual political project in the early 1960s, which was expressed in the publication "Estrategia" (Strategy) and two political organizational experiences: the Socialist Revolution Party and the Marxist Organization of Colombia. Although this project had a brief duration (1962-1964), our inquiry evince its ideological and material density. Our main conclusion is that both performed a reception of humanism Marxism through Satre’s ideology and advanced a model of committed intellectual related to structure of feelings typical of the attractive sixties, which was a time of inflection in the world for its emancipatory and countercultural character. However, this reception was in tension with the structuralism, dependentista and althusseriano, respectively. This was developed in each case independently. Arrubla studied Colombian capitalism with the imperialism-dependence pair and with tools of critical Marxism as the “unequal and combined development”. Zuleta, on the other hand, was a sign reader and a teacher of reading, for him the Marxism was basically a tool to advance a radical critique of the present.

This is a biography in the view of the fact that the individuals are at the center and because this is inspired in the “bildungsroman” to describe youth formation of Arrubla and Zuleta in the Medellin of the 1950s, which was theirs intellectual microclimate. But I avoid the “necessitarian illusion” and, opposite, I attend to the fluctuations and contingencies of every intelectual itinerary. Further the broader objective is to make visible the configuration of a sphere intellectual of the Colombian new left and link with the international context, especially Latin America. I assert that Arrubla and Zuleta were pathfinder in this process, but also is difficult to tribute their place in this process due to since the early 1960s they were reluctant to the subversive option. This option has been hegemonic in Colombia until today, and this is difficult for other lefts expressions as democratic and cultural lefts.

Inspired in the Satre of Western Marxism Arrubla and Zuleta advance for a discursive radicalization through a third way. That is, they set distance from both options: modernizing liberalism and local communism, which was aligned with the stalinist officialdom. But the Colombian specificity was that the left intelligentsia responded to the gestation and implementation of the “National Front” (1958-1974), wich was a regime of alternation of power between two traditional parties (liberal and conservative).

Although I used the comments and intuitions of other authors about Arrubla and Zuleta as intellectuals performers, the truth is that they have been poorly analyzed. Our contribution was to inscribe them in their historical time. The sources were cultural magazines, which believe as spaces of intellectual sociability. “Estrategia” was located at the center of the research, but it was put in synchronic relationship with others as “Mito” (Myth), “Tierra Firme” (Firm Land) and “Esquemas” (Schemes). “Estrategia” was also located diachronically with “Ideología y sociedad” (Ideology and Society) and “Cuadernos Colombianos” (Colombian Notebooks). In this way, I could observe the intellectuals interventions of Arrubla and Zuleta and some of their later effects. In other words, I propose that from “Estrategia” was erected a faction of intellectuals new left, who played a role in the 70s. This intellectuals did not necessarily act in the new decade as a unified group. In addition, we use interviews and memories of performer of the period and the intellectual production of Arrubla and Zuleta.

Table Of Contents

Lista de imágenes

Introducción general
Problematización y periodo estudiado
Estado de la cuestión
Marco teórico y metodológico
Fuentes y estructura del texto

Capítulo 1: Intelectuales en formación: una entrada afrancesada y comunista
1.1. Vida intelectual en Medellín de los años 50
1.2. Los comunistas y la paz
1.3. El Grupo Crisis y el Frente Obrero Estudiantil
1.4. Encuentros y desencuentros con el Partido Comunista

Capítulo 2: Intelectuales en sociabilidad: grupos, instituciones y partidos
2.1. El Mito de la revolución invisible
2.2. El Grupo Estrategia
2.3. Vanguardia política versus vanguardia intelectual: nacimiento y muerte del Partido de la Revolución Socialista-PRS

Capítulo 3: Intelectuales ante la formación nacional
3.1. Encuentros y desencuentros con el liberalismo
3.2. Problemas de método
3.3. Antiimperialismo y dependencia
3.4. Tentaciones proféticas

Capítulo 4: Intelectuales ante la historia y las ciencias sociales
4.1. La tierra, el desarrollo y la violencia
4.1.1. El “Anti-Currie”
4.1.2. Marcas de estilo
4.2. Usos y perspectivas de la historia
4.2.1. Nueva praxis, nueva historia
4.2.2. Universalidad y estudios generales

Capítulo 5: Intelectuales ante el sujeto: Freud y Sartre, dos invitados incómodos a la política revolucionaria
5.1. La revolución psicoanalítica
5.2. El estilo es el hombre
5.2.1. De instituciones y riesgos de dominación ideológica
5.2.2. De grupos y usos heterodoxos de la pareja psicoanálisis y marxismo
Conclusiones Generales

Fuentes y bibliografía
Documentación primaria impresa
Memorias, relatos y entrevistas autobiográficas
Obras de y sobre la época (libros y artículos)

Teórica y metodológica
Sobre Colombia

Anexo N° 1: Cronología cruzada: Mario Arrubla y Estanislao Zuleta

Anexo N° 2: Ficha técnica e índice de la revista Estrategia

Anexo N° 3: Bibliografía de Mario Arrubla Yepes
Libros y artículos publicados
Libros colectivos

Anexo N° 4: Bibliografía de Estanislao Zuleta Velásquez
Libros publicados en vida
Libros colectivos publicados en vida
Artículos, conferencias o entrevistas publicadas en vida
Libros publicados después de su muerte
Artículos, conferencias o entrevistas publicados después de su muerte

Título obtenido

Doctora de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Ciencias Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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