Subjetividad, memoria y verdad : narrativas testimoniales en los procesos de justicia y de memoria en la Argentina de la posdictadura (1985-2006)


Oberti, Alejandra




367 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






The subject of this Thesis is the relationship between subjectivity, memory and truth in the testimonial narratives displayed through three testimonial plots that cross three scenes of the justice process and of memories about the human rights violations committed under State terrorism in Argentina. These scenes were constructed from a testimonial corpus that runs through the Trial of the Military Juntas (1985), the Truth Trial of La Plata (1999-2006) and the narrative interviews of the Oral Archive of Memoria Abierta. It focuses on the way in which the witnesses elaborate in their testimonial practices their own place of enunciation as subjects of the justice process and the construction of memories; it explores the transformations and meaning displacements in their testimonial practices in relation to listening social frames; and addresses the way in which their testimonies reconfigure and alter the scenes in which they intervene, establishing problematic articulations between the processes of memory and justice throughout the defined period.

The corpus is based on public audiovisual records produced by state institutions (Federal Courts) and non-governmental Human Rights organizations (Memoria Abierta and Asociación Anahí): the Documentary Collection: 530hs. The audiovisual archive of the Trial of the Military Juntas. Argentina (1985), the Documentary Collection of the Truth Trial of La Plata (1998-2008) and the Testimonies Audiovisual Archive of Memoria Abierta. The Introduction raises the theoretical perspectives that support the research topic: the relationship between subjectivity, memory and truth in testimonial narratives produced within the framework of memory and justice processes in our country in the post-dictatorship (1985-2006). The problem of this research aims to study the transformations, subjective displacements and the potential for updating the testimonial narratives, which go through the different listening frames in these testimonial scenes.

First Section tackles “Testimonial Scenes: Justice and memory processes in the post-dictatorship”, includes a Chapter I (“Scenes of justice and memory in Argentina (19852006)”) dedicated to reviewing the antecedents of the studies dedicated to each of these scenes and the role of the testimonies in them. Chapter II (“Archives, testimonies, corpus”) dedicated to explaining the qualitative approach that guided the decisions to build and cut the corpus, to base ethical decisions on the use and analysis of the audiovisual materials that compose it, as well as the topics that define each testimonial plot developed in the Second Section. Chapter III (“Testimonies: tensions and debates in perspective”) tackles the three testimonial scenes established from these audiovisual collections condense the transformations of the Argentine process of justice and the construction of memories and allowed to address the limitations, potentialities and struggles for the legitimacy of the testimonies in each listening social frame: "the exemplary trial" (Trial of the Military Juntas); "The truth as a way to justice" (Truth Trial of La Plata); "Memory beyond justice" (Oral Archive of Memoria Abierta).

In each of these testimonial scenes, I analyze the marks of institutional rites, enunciative strategies and other discursive aspects, as well as expressive and affective dimensions, which encourage (ethical and political) repositioninigs that disturb the ritualized aspects of each scene.

In the Second Section, “Testimonial Plots: Subjectivity, memory and truth”, the complex temporality of testimonial practices is approached through the elaboration of three plots that establish relationships between different testimonial narratives belonging to each scene, as “dialogues” that cross time and contexts. In Chapter IV “On subjectivity: affects in testimonial scenes”, the discursive forms of the oath o compromise to tell the truth, the identification and testimonial closings are addressed to analyze the narrative and enunciative resources with which the witnesses manage to “disorganize” the ritual character that the testimonial scene supposes (both in the process of justice as in the memory archive), showing its inherent anachronistic temporality and its performative potential in relation to subjectivity, as well as its ability to resist the limitations and obstacles of social listening frames. Chapter V “From memory: intermittences” covers a series of testimonies referring to revolutionary political militancy, violence and sexual abuse in clandestine detention centers, and the situation of girls and boys during the kidnapping and detention of their parents. In these testimonial plots, the dimension of listening and its place in the elaboration of memories of traumatic events is investigated, problematizing some interpretations that focus on the silences and difficulties of enunciation of the witnesses, the blind spots of the testimony and / or the procedural obstacles inherent to the judicial framework. Chapter VI “On Truth: the senses and the body, searches and legacies” addresses stories about the experience of torture focused on the centrality of sensoriality and corporeality in the work of reconfiguration of subjectivity, in which imagination and play also take place. The histories of the searches are also traced through the laborious creation and storage of a precarious archive of documents and encounters in which the traces - bodily, sensory and affective - of painful experiences remain that, however, allowed the reconstruction of truths. necessary, even when they are fragmentary. Finally, a series of plots are presented referring to the disturbing and unstable elaboration of legacies destined for direct relatives and close surroundings, interrupted or deferred dialogues, whose updating in the testimonies potentially enables transmission and reparation instances also open to other generations and actors. that can confront them and, perhaps, recognize themselves. Through these testimonial scenes and plots, narrative variations and affective modalities are observed that emerge from the subject's own reflective work in the act of witnessing. The potentiality of actualization (memorial and affective) of testimonial practices in each context of enunciation expresses the inextricable and tense relationship that it establishes between subjectivity, memory and truth.

The conclusions synthesize the research findings and present some questions related to working with audiovisual archival materials that can be fruitful for memory studies and for the social sciences.

Table Of Contents

1. Escenas y tramas testimoniales en los procesos de justicia y la construcción de memorias
2. Testimonio, memorias y justicia
3. Algunas estaciones del recorrido hacia esta tesis

PRIMERA SECCIÓN – ESCENAS TESTIMONIALES Procesos de justicia y de memoria en la pos-dictadura

Capítulo I - Escenas de justicia y de memoria en la Argentina (1985-2006)
1. Justicia y/o memorias: tensiones y articulaciones en la investigación
2. Reflexiones en torno a la voz testimonial
3. Tres escenas testimoniales
3.1. El juicio ejemplar: Juicio a las Juntas Militares
3.2. La verdad como vía a la justicia: Juicio por la verdad de La Plata
3.3. La memoria más allá de la justicia: el Archivo Oral de testimonios de Memoria Abierta

Capítulo II - Archivos, testimonios, corpus
1. Los testimonios audiovisuales en los estudios de memoria y en las ciencias sociales
2. Aspectos metodológicos del trabajo con testimonios audiovisuales
2.1. Archivo Oral de Memoria Abierta (2001-continúa)
2.2. Fondo Registro fílmico del Juicio a las Juntas”, Argentina (1985)
2.3. Fondo Audiovisual del Juicio por la Verdad - La Plata (2002-2006)
3. De los archivos al corpus
Capítulo III - Testimonios: tensiones y debates en perspectiva
1. El tiempo del testimonio: compromiso y distanciamiento
2. Contar, mostrar, temer
3. El fin de la justicia

SEGUNDA SECCIÓN - TRAMAS TESTIMONIALES Subjetividad, memoria y verdad

Capítulo IV – De la subjetividad: los afectos en las escenas testimoniales
1. Irrupciones: afectos justos
2. Desaparición: identidad y parentesco
3. Sobrevivir
4. “Quisiera agregar algo más”

Capítulo V – De la memoria: intermitencias
1. La militancia armada en los 70: clandestinidad y estigmatización
2. Escuchar: la violencia contra las mujeres
3. Infancia
Capítulo VI – De la verdad: los sentidos y el cuerpo, las búsquedas y los legados
1. Tortura: sensorialidad, corporalidad y reconfiguración de la subjetividad
2. El archivo en la escena testimonial: las búsquedas
3. Legados: tener/dar nombre, testimoniar


Testimonios citados 1. Archivo Oral Memoria Abierta
2. Fondo Registro fílmico del Juicio a las Juntas Militares (Argentina, 1985)
3. Fondo Audiovisual del Juicio por la Verdad - La Plata (2002-2007)

Documentos e Informes Prensa y publicaciones web
Sitios Web consultados
Repositorios digitales de documentos sobre el proceso de justica en la Argentina
Referencias bibliográficas
ANEXO: Imágenes y diagramas de las escenas testimoniales analizadas
Juicio a las Juntas Militares
Juicio por la Verdad de La Plata
Memoria Abierta

Título obtenido

Doctora de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Ciencias Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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