La relación entre los sindicatos y el gobierno de Carlos Menem y su repercusión en la política laboral y de obras sociales


Cavarozzi, Marcelo

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337 p.


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The objective of this paper is to explain how they are formulated and implemented the policy of labor reform and “obras sociales” system during the governments of Carlos Menem, centrally by analyzing the way in which the relationship established between the Government and trade unions conditioned action, which led to specific results on the labour market and the characteristics of health coverage.

I postulate that the crisis at the beginning of the 1990s was not enough to understand the set of official initiatives, but that policies adopted had to do with the definition of the problem, the actors that could influence the discussion, solutions could be chosen and with the economic and political context in which the measures were discussed. Decisions were the result of agreements and pressures made by different groups (especially trade unionism), as well as opportunities for choice that had public policy makers.

The fact that certain sectors of trade unionism was an important component of the menemist coalition conditioned the type of policies implemented, and can thus limit the scope of official initiatives, favoring some of the interests of the so-called "sindicalismo de negocios". Also, I tried to show how the reverse in some government initiatives or the delay to implement them was a consideration against the need to get union support for the implementation of other projects that are considered to be priority

In the first three chapters I developed the theoretical framework, objectives and assumptions made I, as well as the methodology used in the work, I briefly described the labour legislation and development of “obras sociales” system until 1989, along with changes in the trade unions. . I also analyze the main problems existing in the working plane and the functioning of the obras sociales, emphasizing the trends that could lead to a definition of the crisis that would favor the adoption of certain policies.

Subsequently, I analyze the main issues raised at the beginning of the first presidency of Menem, highlighting the characterization of the problems and the division of the Trade Union Confederation, with an emphasis on positioning of actors against government projects. I describe how the management of the “obras socials” funds becomes a mechanism for disciplining the unions.

In the fifth chapter I attempt to explain the implementation of deeper reforms in labor and “obras sociales” system. Discusses the enactment of law 24.013 and 24.028, as well as the attempted transformation of health system with the project of creation of the OSAM. Characterized the reaction of stakeholders against initiatives, particularly the trade union organizations. On the other hand, illustrate changes in the Trade Union map from the creation of the C.T.A. In addition, amendments in the wage area as a correlative of the Convertibility Plan, whereas the positioning that the guilds adopt those changes will be developed.

In the following section discusses the tensions the C.G.T. and the attempt to introduce changes in labour matters for management as Minister of Labour of Enrique Rodriguez. Develops the change in strategy in relation to the deregulation of the system of “obras sociales”, by the dictate of decrees. Describes the proposals made by Armando Caro Figueroa, the submission of a new draft labor reform and the rejection of the C.G.T. thereto, which ended with the parliamentary failure of the initiative and the resignation of Rodriguez.

Chapter seven discusses the most prolific period in reforms, with the arrival of Caro Figueroa to the Ministry of labour and the establishment of a new relationship with the C.G.T., which reaches the Secretary General Antonio Cassia, emerging the M.T.A as an opposition line within the Trade Organization. Describes the favorable response of the Government to certain Union demands and the creation of a space of negotiation with the "Framework agreement for employment, productivity and Social equity", and programmes to create employment. Moreover, it explains the process of negotiation for the implementation of deregulation in the welfare system. Then, I describe disagreements with the C.G.T. because of the reluctance of menemist government to implement measures that will slow the layoffs and the establishment of the emergency employment. In this chapter I characterize growth of M.T.A. and C.T.A. and clashes between different guilds, and discusses the changes within the C.G.T., with Daer ´s Secretariat. Describes the labor decrees the end of 1996, the implementation of the “Ley de Riesgos Laborales” and the progress in the deregulation of the obras sociales.

In the ninth chapter changes after the replacement of Caro Figueroa by Erman Gonzalez, with the sanction of the law 25.013 are explained and described the features of the functioning of the systems of A. R. T. and social works, whereas implementing measures that reflect the strengthening of unions close to the Menem. Finally, in the last chapter I formulate the conclusions, based on my assumptions, highlighting the changing character that has had the relationship Government unions during the period analysed. He is also emphasize the link between the negotiation of certain policies with trade unions that were part of the coalition Government, as a condition for the implementation of measures that the Government prioritized.

Table Of Contents

I) Introducción
I-1) Marco Teórico
I-2) Objetivos
I-3) Hipótesis
I-4) Metodología
I-5) Estructura de la obra

II) Génesis de los sistemas laboral y de obras sociales
II-1) Reseña del sistema de obras sociales
II-2) Breve historia de la legislación laboral

III) Trastornos primordiales que impactaban en los sistemas
III-1) Dificultades en el sistema de obras sociales
III-2) Complicaciones en el mercado laboral

IV) Primeros planteos durante la presidencia Menem
IV-1) Plataforma Justicialista en materia laboral y de obras sociales
IV-2) Primeras estrategias para la transformación
IV-2-1) Maniobras en relación con el sistema de obras sociales
IV-2-2) Modificaciones iniciales en el plano laboral

V) Comienzo de las reformas
V-1) Planteos en relación al sistema de obras sociales
V-2) Perspectiva de los actores frente a la propuesta
V-3) Cambios en las relaciones laborales
V-3-1) Sanción de la Ley 24.013
V-3-2) Secuelas políticas de la sanción de la Ley 24.013
V-4) Ley de Accidentes de Trabajo 24.028
V-5) Persistencia de las innovaciones en materia laboral

VI) Modificaciones en el contexto y reposicionamiento de los actores
VI-1) Cambio de estrategia en la desregulación del sistema de obras sociales
VI-2) Mutaciones en el plano laboral

VII) Incremento en la dinámica de las reformas
VII-1) Apertura del proceso reformista durante el Ministerio de Caro Figueroa
VII-2) Reconstrucción de un espacio de negociación
VII-3) Tratamiento legislativo de las iniciativas en materia laboral
VII-4) Ley de Riesgos de Trabajo
VII-5) Problemas en la implementación de la reforma en obras sociales

VIII) Marchas y contramarchas en los procesos de reforma
VIII-1) Continuidad de los planteos de cambio en materia laboral
VIII-2) Proceso de implementación de la Ley de Riesgos de Trabajo
VIII-3) Movimientos contradictorios en la desregulación del sistema de obras sociales

IX) Reordenamiento oficialista y supuesta “contrarreforma”
IX-1) Nueva propuesta en la temática laboral
IX-2) Características centrales de la Ley 25.013
IX-3) Continuidad de los cambios en el plano laboral
IX-4) Cambios en el sistema de protección de riesgos de trabajo
IX-5) Funcionamiento del sistema desregulado de obras sociales

X) Conclusiones
Publicaciones y documentos

Título obtenido

Doctor de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Ciencias Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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