La construcción del problema de la "calidad educativa" desde el Estado en Ecuador entre 2007 y 2017


Grondona, Ana

Spatial Coverage

Temporal Coverage

enero del 2007 a mayo del 2017




225 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






The present thesis arises from the interest in the presence in Latin America of a series of governments that have shared, for the lapse of at least a decade, the construction of antineoliberal political discourses, marking a strong opposition with the previous four decades. Such political processes, whose starting point we place in the rise of Chavismo in 1998 in Venezuela, had to rebuild economies weakened by the rule of finance, deregulation and privatization, and, at the same time, shape or rearm the social force that gave them sustenance. Although they presented similarities in some fundamentals and policies, the strategic objectives of this group of projects were not the same. Some did not propose the systematic overcoming of the conditions of inequality and exploitation, whereas others raised the construction of the so-called "Socialism of the 21st century". In an antagonistic way with both cases, there were also typically neoliberal governments that continued under the forms and policies of the previous decades.

In this scenario, each political project presented its proposals for the educational field, with different levels of explicitness. Ecuador, in the period from January 2007 to May 2017, with the three governments of Rafael Correa, presented in educational issues, a superposition of elements of more efficient-oriented and technocratic approaches to education, with others more democratic, procedural and that weighed the pedagogical criteria above any other. Likewise, Ecuador is a case that shows actions and discourses that seek to reposition the State in a central place. We have selected Ecuador as our study case because of the combination and overlapping of approaches that its educational policies show, because of the relevance it acquired in governmental discourse and, finally, because it became a sort of “good practice” or “example” for very different actors of the political spectrum.

Broadly speaking, the problem of educational quality appears not only as an objective to be reached by governments, but also as an argument to legitimize certain actions. In the name of quality, political projects of very different orientations develop their educational policies, while also some social organizations build their claims using the same term. In this sense, the main question that guides our research is about the modes in which the State produces and circulates the problem of educational quality in Ecuador between 2007 and 2017.

Our research is inspired by the sociology of the problematizations approach. To "problematize" is, for this perspective, to bring something into the game of true and false, that is, as an object of thought and intervention. A problematization (in this case, around the question of "quality") always assembles elements (concepts, vocabularies, analogies, methods, etc.) of diverse origin, which trajectory and combination must be described. To do this, we have analysed and linked various documents (interviews, reports, legislation) that participate in the delimitation of a certain social problem (educational quality) for the case and period under study and we have searched for resonances between some of the elements there found and other conjunctures This resulted in the elaboration of a documentary corpus, this is to say, a certain articulated document arrangement

In Chapter 1 we analyse, in general terms, the construction of the problem of educational quality, from the mid-20th century up to the present, where we observe the substantive role occupied by international credit and cooperation organizations. We show a periodization that presents a first period that goes from the fifties until the late eighties, a second phase that is typical of the nineties and a third that occupies almost the two first decades of the 2000s still in progress.

In Chapter 2 we look into the education system in Ecuador, making a brief historical journey in order to understand with more elements recent history. We analyse some elements of the political life of the case, as well as some facts, prior to the arrival of correísmo, that were key to the educational policy of the Citizen Revolution. In this same chapter, we analyse the educational field specifically between 2007 and 2017, in doing so we describe the executive cabinets that the Ministry of Education had, the educational system and its changes, and the role of development plans and accountability.

In Chapter 3 we first revisit the emergence of the quality problem in Ecuador and then work on the problematization of the issue between 2007 and 2017, based on two dimensions that are only distinguishable in analytical terms. On the one hand, we investigate a series of interventions that mobilize “quality” as an issue that can and should be measured. On the other hand, we focus on normative/prescriptive aspects of the problematization, that is, the definitions and purposes that accompany the imperative of guaranteeing a higher educational quality.

One of the main results of the present investigation is the delimitation of different types of rationality that intertwine (often in contradictory ways) in the delimitation of the problem of quality. We have name these rationalities: efficient / technocratic rationality, community rationality and citizen rationality. The three overlap, juxtapose and differentiate in different ways.

In the conclusions, we recapitulate the central aspects of our argument to affirm that the problem of educational quality is, mainly, a heterogeneous issue. This means that it is not only an educational issue, but it is linked to debates about the construction of the State in Latin America in general, and Ecuador in particular. This implies, then, that the disputes over the definition of the problem in question participate, in a broader sense, in the struggles for the delimitation of the meaning (or the senses) of the political project (or projects) in which it is inscribed.

Table Of Contents

Índice de Cuadros
Índice de Gráficos
Glosario de Siglas

1. Sobre el problema de la calidad educativa
1.1 Cuando la calidad educativa fue masividad, productividad y capital humano
1.2 Calidad en los años 90: medición de resultados, crisis y reforma educativa
1.3 Calidad en los años 2000: pertinencia, evaluación, conocimiento y aprendizaje

2. La educación en Ecuador desde mediados del siglo XX al 2017
2.1 La educación en Ecuador en la segunda mitad del siglo XX: acceso y calidad
2.2 La educación ecuatoriana en cifras entre los años 90 y los 2000
2.3 Las sucesiones presidenciales en Ecuador entre 1988 y 2007
2.4 La previa al correísmo: acuerdos educativos y el Plan Decenal
2.5 La llegada de Alianza País y su propuesta de gobierno
2.6 La educación en Ecuador entre 2007-2017
A. Los gabinetes educativos de Rafael Correa
B. Objetivos, misiones y estructura del Ministerio de Educación
C. Estructura del Sistema Educativo
D. Supervisión y control de la política educativa: las Rendiciones de Cuentas
E. La reforma constitucional de 2008 y el derecho a la educación
F. Los Planes de Desarrollo y el problema de la calidad educativa
1. Sobre los Planes de Desarrollo
2. La calidad educativa en los planes de desarrollo

3. El problema de la calidad educativa entre 2007 y 2017: un asunto heterogéneo
3.1 Acerca de la emergencia del problema de la calidad en Ecuador
3.2 Calidad como conjunto de intervenciones cuantificables
A. Acceso a la escuela
B. Infraestructura escolar
C. Trabajo docente
D. Currículum y prácticas “innovadoras”
E. Evaluación y estándares de calidad
1. Formulaciones sobre evaluación
2. El Sistema Nacional de Evaluación
3. Estándares Educativos
4. Evaluaciones Docentes
5. Evaluaciones para estudiantes
6. Evaluaciones estandarizadas internacionales
F. Otras políticas para la calidad educativa
3.3 Calidad como conjunto de valores e interrogantes
A. Sobre los sentidos y los contenidos de la educación
B. Sobre el rol del Estado
1. El Estado en Ecuador: entre la eficiencia administrativa y el control ciudadano
2. Estado y calidad educativa
C. Sobre el rol docente y estudiantil


Título obtenido

Magister de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Estudios Sociales Latinoamericanos

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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