El delito en la prensa gráfica argentina : un estudio en diarios nacionales y provinciales, 2012-2014


Martini, Stella Maris

Spatial Coverage

Temporal Coverage





250 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)






The thesis studies the news and agendas about crime and its effects on daily life in national and provincial reference press of Argentina, between 2012 and 2014. It Analyzes and compares the mechanisms of gatekeeping (selection) and newsmaking (construction) of the so-called crime news, and the meanings of this information in a corpus constituted by summaries and news from the newspapers La Nación (Buenos Aires), Los Andes (Mendoza), Río Negro (Río Negro) and La Nueva. (Bahía Blanca, formerly La Nueva Provincia) in the mentioned period. The selection of newspapers of this type considers their centennial press character and reference in the country, with a history that has constituted them in hegemonic publications in the places where they are produced and in its areas of circulation and recognition. Traditional newspapers are chosen from the regions of Cuyo (Los Andes), Patagonia (Río Negro), and Macropampeana (La Nación and La Nueva), building a journalistic territory that develops in an area that is especially productive and significant for the national economy. It was decided to compare the national press and the provincial press because the last one enable us to advance in the knowledge of publications that count for different histories, cultures and geographies of Buenos Aires, considering that the crime agendas propose an account of the country and they suggest a classificated sight about subjects and daily practices; therefore, the inclusion of La Nación allows a comparison of all relevant scales.

In the referenced Argentine press, crime news historically constituted marginal information relegated to the popular press. At the beginning of the 90s, in the context of social, cultural and political transformations, as consequence of neoliberalism, serious acts of corruption occur, new forms of crime emerge, and according to statistics from the period, criminal rates increase. In this stage the trivialization of information and infotainment is consolidated, there are variations in the ways of constructing the news and in the contracts for reading the reference press. This press hierarchizes the information about the crime by giving it a prominent section, placing it on the cover and resorting to spectacular discursive modalities. Thus, insecurity installs as a scenario of everyday life and the central mark of the era that threatens people's lives and assets. This phenomenon persists and deepens in the new millennium.

With this background, my research asks about the ways in which the crime news is built and means in a sector of reference national and provincial press between 2012 and 2014. The idea was not working exclusively outstanding cases due to its seriousness or interference in the social agenda but face the daily news about crime. The thesis also asks about the distinctions and continuities between the agendas and coverage of the press studied, and the role played by the framings or frames of the news, as organizing principles of information, in its production and recognition. Thus, it investigates the possible similarities and differences in the level of summaries and agendas, the typology of the crime and its actors, the discursive modalities, and the relations with the sociopolitical history of each place of circulation of the newspapers.

In the thesis I work with two articulated hypotheses: 1) the large history of the journals under study legitimizes them to be representatives for a particular image of city, province, region and nation 2) There are different ways of constructing the threat and the fear in the information about the crime published by these newspapers, according to their origin, socio-economic and cultural context and history. Thus, the character of national and not national (provincial) publications contributes to the construction of unique stories about the reality of provinces, localities, regions and the country.

The methodological approach is qualitative, applies tools of communication theory, information and culture, and theory about the news. These allow to address both the journalistic production routines and the news product, the construction of the news and the agendas, the representations that are built on crime, daily life, insecurity and social control, and possible modes to appeal the lectorate. It appeals to quantitative techniques to verify occurrences and recurrences of the published information that allow to consolidate meanings. The semidirected interviews carried out with journalists of the newspapers studied to understand the conception of the news and the productive routines from the place of the chroniclers are complementary data; as well as documentation on demography, geography, history and location of the provinces on the map of the country, crime statistics; among other data of contemporary interest to the period studied.

The four newspapers historically had, as a reference press at various geographical scales, a privileged role in the construction of images about the nation and the provinces. I assume therefore that the attribute of the hundred, common to publications, affects the construction of frames from which the news is framed and interpreted. The crime news in newspapers allow to read versions of everyday life and a characterization of the country, its provinces, regions and cities, which constitute an argument about the need to control certain territories and subjects, and denounce a situation of ungovernability in the country and the provinces.

The intention of this thesis is to contribute to research on public communication of problems that concern to several sectors of the society, and to add knowledge to the field of media studies as credible constructors on the reality of crime and actors of the circuit of political communication. The approach of the selected press allows to expand and deepen the state of existing literature on the subject and on this specific problem. Also, the incorporation of the provincial press contributes to the literature on the Argentine press.

Table Of Contents




Propuesta, corpus, objetivos, preguntas de investigación e hipótesis
Justificación y relevancia de la investigación
Estado del arte
Marco teórico. Categorías y conceptos
Abordaje metodológico

CAPÍTULO I: El surgimiento de la prensa moderna en Argentina: los casos de La Nación, Los Andes, La Nueva Provincia y Río Negro
1.1 La Argentina moderna
1.2 El mercado periodístico de la época (1867-1916)
1.2.1 La Nación. “Tribuna de doctrina”
1.2.2 Los Andes. “El diario de Cuyo”
1.2.3 La Nueva Provincia, “El diario del Sur argentino”
1.2.4 Río Negro. “El diario de la Patagonia”
1.3 Conclusiones parciales

CAPÍTULO II: Las tapas. El diseño de la información en los diarios
2.1 La Nación
2.1.1 Las portadas, el diseño de la información
2.1.2 El cuerpo del diario. Los sistemas clasificatorios
2.1.3 El delito en primera plana
2.2 Los Andes
2.2.1 El diseño del diario y sus portadas
2.2.2 Los “Policiales” en agenda: las noticias sobre el delito en las tapas y en el cuerpo del diario
2.3 De La Nueva Provincia a La Nueva.
2.3.1 El impacto de su rediseño en las portadas
2.3.2 Las secciones del diario y la clasificación de la información periodística
2.3.3 “Seguridad”: ubicación prioritaria del delito en el diario
2.4 Río Negro
2.4.1 Las tapas en el diario que se abre a la Patagonia
2.4.2 De la portada a la sección: la violencia delictiva como agenda prioritaria
2.5 Conclusiones parciales

CAPÍTULO III: La construcción de la noticia sobre el delito. Noticiabilidad, fuentes y agendas
3.1 El delito en la prensa gráfica. La clasificación de la información
3.2 La selección de los acontecimientos y la construcción de la noticia. Los criterios de noticiabilidad
3.3 Las fuentes periodísticas en la noticia policial
3.4 Las agendas sobre el delito y la serialización
3.5 Conclusiones parciales

CAPÍTULO IV: El contrato de lectura. Las modalidades discursivas de la noticia, sensacionalismo, hipérbole y espectacularización en los discursos
4.1 Contrato de lectura y verosimilitud
4.2 Géneros, estilos, formas del relato
4.3 Sensacionalismo, hipérbole y espectacularización de la información
4.4 Encuadrando el delito
4.5 Conclusiones parciales

CAPÍTULO V: Mundos construidos en las representaciones del delito. La mediatización del control social
5.1 Vivir en peligro
5.2 El país, la provincia, la ciudad en las noticias
5.3 Conclusiones parciales



Título obtenido

Doctora de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Ciencias Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

Social Bookmarking