Créditos para el consumo y programas de transferencias condicionadas de ingreso : una exploración desde las emociones sociales


De Sena, Angélica

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266 p.


Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.0 Genérica (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)




Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (autonomus city)


This thesis is based on a research on two approaches to the “social issue” in the form of consumer incentives: on the one hand, Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCT) and, on the other, consumer loans. It starts from identifying the connections between social policies and financial capital in terms of its systemic and compensatory function, by forming one of the central nodes on which the expansion of current capitalism is based.

The general objective is to explore the structure of emotions that are configured in CCT recipients who take consumer loans in Buenos Aires City (2013-2019). In this way, it investigates the ways in which Porteña Citizenship, Social Ticket, the Universal Allowance for Child and the Universal Allowance for Pregnancy structure in their recipient’s particular emotions linked to consumption from obtaining a credit. The specific objectives are: a) Characterize Buenos Aires's CCT between 2013 and 2019; b) To investigate the existing links between the bankarization of social policies and consumer loans; c) Identify the consumer practices of CCT recipients that lead to the demand for credits; and d) Analyze the emotions that are established in relation to demanding and obtaining a consumer loan as a recipient of CCT.

Some of the questions that guide this inquiry are: How is the implementation of the programs under study in Buenos Aires? What is the relationship between the bankarization of social policies and the expansion of consumer credit? What type of credits do the CCT recipient’s access? What are the emotions that are structured around being an assisted subject, consumer and debtor?

This thesis tries to encourage a contribution in three directions: 1. The crosses between a sociological approach to social policies and the sociology of emotions; 2. The study of the CCT implementation in Buenos Aires; and 3. The relationships between CCTs and consumer loans.

Within the framework of the consolidation of a new logic of social policies based mainly on the incentive to consumption, the CCT (Valencia Lomelí, 2008; Sojo, 2007; MacAuslan and Riemenschneider, 2011) were positioned as star programs in fighting against poverty, granting relatively low amounts (Villatoro, 2008; Fiszbein and Shady, 2009; World Bank, 2015) in exchange for compliance with certain conditions. Designed, promoted, and in many cases financed, by multilateral credit organizations, they reached a huge population at the national and global level (De Sena, 2011, 2018). In addition, they showed strong results as policies to promote consumption (Rawlings and Rubio, 2003; Agis, Cañete and Panigo, 2010). Along these lines, arguments emerge that promote financial inclusion as a tool for social inclusion, based on the bankarization of the granting of transfers (Neffa, 2009; Maldonado et al, 2011; Visa, 2012; IDB, 2017).

All these factors contribute to connecting CCT recipients with the market and, particularly, with consumer loans (Levinas, 2013; Wilkis, 2013; Wilkis and Hornes, 2017; Gago, 2015). In addition to this, in mid-2017 a line of consumer credits for CCT recipients was created in Argentina from the National Social Security Administration (ANSES) - initially called the ARGENTA Card, later called ANSES credits - as an extension of pre-existing credits to retirees and pensioners. Thus, consumer loans are installed as a new form of social policy (SIEMPRO, 2018).

Therefore, this thesis is framed in the current discussions on credits as a form of social policy, consumption linked to CCT and the sociology of emotions. The contribution that is sought to be made, based on the study of social emotions around consumption mediated by credit in subjects receiving social programs, involves investigating the ways in which domination structures based on social security are internalized and embodied in creditor-debtor logic.

To achieve the proposed objectives, the methodological strategy is qualitative based on primary and secondary data. The first ones, created from semi-structured interviews carried out with key informants: a) who are involved in the management of the aforementioned PTCI; b) granting consumer credit within the formal sector; c) subjects who live in Buenos Aires, receive CCT and access some credit for consumption; ensuring that the information obtained produces a theoretical saturation, understood as maximum heterogeneity and maximum homogeneity (Piovani, 2007). However, given the complexities of accessing representatives of the informal consumer credit sector and the methodological difficulties of approaching this sector, the following strategy was included: a) documentary analysis, through the study of state of art and academic productions that analyze and describe the programs under study; b) the non-participant observation, where advertising brochures of informal consumer loans offered on the public thoroughfare of Buenos Aires were compiled for analysis; and c) virtual ethnography (Hine, 2011) by studying virtual Facebook groups made up of CCT recipients and advertising from financial entities, ANSES and banks, in order to address the demand and supply of consumer loans, respectively. Each of these elements served to assemble the puzzle that allowed an approach and a greater understanding of the phenomenon under study.

Table Of Contents

Capítulo 1. Introducción

Capítulo 2. Las políticas sociales: ¿Qué son y qué otorgan?
La cuestión social como origen y causa de las políticas sociales
El Estado y lo social: responsabilidades y responsabilizaciones
Un recorrido por definiciones y conceptualizaciones sobre las políticas sociales
La historia de las políticas sociales argentinas: evolución hasta su bancarización

Capítulo 3. La sociología de las emociones y los créditos al consumo
Discusiones teóricas y definiciones de las emociones
La historia del crédito al consumo: surgimiento y desarrollo
Crédito, consumo y emociones

Capítulo 4. Los Programas de Transferencia Condicionada de Ingreso (PTCI)
Los PTCI: Definiciones y principales debates
Los PTCI y las invocaciones al consumo y al crédito

Capítulo 5. Los PTCI en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires
La Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA)
Los PTCI de CABA en la actualidad
El Programa Ciudadanía Porteña (CP)
La Asignación Universal por Hijo para Protección Social (AUH)

Capítulo 6. La estrategia metodológica
Datos primarios y secundarios
Pertinencia teórica y metodológica de la estrategia seleccionada
Complejidades metodológicas del proceso de investigación
Procesamiento y análisis de datos

Capítulo 7. La implementación de los PTCI y las prácticas de consumo que demandan la intervención del crédito
El proceso de bancarización
La bancarización como despliegue de destrezas emocionales
La bancarización como “blanqueo”
Lo “mínimo” que “no alcanza”
Los PTCI como una “ayuda”
Bajo la lupa: prácticas de consumo esperadas y reguladas

Capítulo 8. La oferta de créditos para el consumo: Los PTCI y sus “diálogos” con el mundo financiero
Los créditos al consumo en la CABA
La oferta de créditos para el consumo con mínimos requisitos5
Dinámicas segregadas de expansión financiera

Capítulo 9. Las emociones en torno a los créditos para el consumo
Antes de obtener el crédito
El momento de otorgamiento del crédito
El después del crédito

Capítulo 10. Conclusiones
Las redefiniciones de los sistemas de protección social a partir de las relaciones entre consumo, créditos y PTCI
De la inclusión en el consumo a la inclusión financiera
La expansión del capital financiero: un consumo ampliado a través del crédito

Referencias bibliográficas


Título obtenido

Doctora de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Ciencias Sociales

Institución otorgante

Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

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